Jul 05 2014
Jul 05

How to Build a Drupal 8 Module

Even though Drupal 7 core fell short of a proper way of handling its brand new entity system (we currently rely on the great Entity module for that), it did give us EntityFieldQuery. For those of you who don’t know, EntityFieldQuery is a very powerful querying class used to search Drupal entities programatically (nodes, users, etc).

It provides a number of methods that make it easy to query entities based on conditions such as field values or class properties. If you don’t know how it works, feel free to check out this documentation page or this great tutorial on the subject.

In this article I am going to talk about what we have in Drupal 8 for querying entities. There is no more EntityFieldQuery, but there’s an entity.query service that will instantiate a query object for a given entity type (and that implements the \Drupal\Core\Entity\Query\QueryInterface). We can access this service statically through the \Drupal namespace or using dependency injection.

First up, we’ll look at querying node entities and then we’ll see how to load them. The same techniques will work with other content entities as well (users, comments etc), but also with configuration entities, and that’s really cool.

The entity query service

As mentioned, there are two ways we can access the entity.query service that we use for querying entities. Statically, we can do this:

$query = \Drupal::entityQuery('node');

Instead of node, we can specify any other entity type machine name and what we get inside the $query variable is the query object for our entity type. The entityQuery() static method on the \Drupal namespace is a shortcut for doing so using the entity.query service.

Alternatively (and the highly recommended approach) is to use dependency injection.

If you have access to the container, you can load the service from there and then get the right query object:

$entity_query_service = $container->get('entity.query');
$query = $entity_query_service->get('node');

As you can see, we use the get() method on the entity_query service to instantiate a query object for the entity type with the machine name passed as a parameter.

Querying entities

Let’s illustrate a couple of examples of querying for node entities using this object.

A very simple query that returns the published nodes:

$query = \Drupal::entityQuery('node')
    ->condition('status', 1);
    
$nids = $query->execute();

$nids will be an array of entity ids (in our case node ids) keyed by the revision ids (if there is revisioning enabled for the entity type) or the entity ids if not. Let’s see an example in which we add more property conditions as well as field conditions:

$query = \Drupal::entityQuery('node')
    ->condition('status', 1)
    ->condition('changed', REQUEST_TIME, 'condition('title', 'cat', 'CONTAINS')
    ->condition('field_tags.entity.name', 'cats');

$nids = $query->execute();

In this query, we retrieve the node ids of all the published nodes that have been last updated before the current time, that have the word cat inside their title and that have a taxonomy term called cats as a reference in the field_tags.

As you can see, there is no more distinction between propertyCondition and fieldCondition (as there is in D7 with EntityFieldQuery). Additionally, we can include conditions based on referenced entities tacking on the entity.(column) to the entity reference field name.

An important thing to note is that we also have the langcode parameter in the condition() method by which we can specify what translation of the node should be included in the query. For instance, we can retrieve node IDs that contain a specific value inside of a field in one language but another value inside the same field for another language.

For more information on the condition() method you should consult the API documentation.

The next thing we are going to look at is using condition groups (both AND and OR) for more powerful queries:

$query = \Drupal::entityQuery('node')
    ->condition('status', 1)
    ->condition('changed', REQUEST_TIME, 'orConditionGroup()
    ->condition('title', 'cat', 'CONTAINS')
    ->condition('field_tags.entity.name', 'cats');

$nids = $query->condition($group)->execute();

Above, we altered our previous query so as to retrieve nodes that either have the cat string in their title or have a reference to the term called cats in their field_tags field. And we did so by creating an orConditionGroup object that we then pass to the query as a condition. And we can group together multiple conditions within a andConditionGroup as well.

There are many other methods on the QueryInterface that can extend the query (such as for sorting, range, etc). I encourage you to check them out in the documentation and experiment with them. For now, though, let’s take a quick look at what to do with the result set.

Loading entities

As I mentioned above, the execute() method on the query object we’ve been working with returns an array of entity IDs. Supposedly we now have to load those entity objects and work with them. How do we do that?

In Drupal 7 we had the entity_load() function to which we passed an array of IDs and that would return an array of objects. In Drupal 8, this helper function is maintained and you can use it pretty much in the same way, except only for one entity at a time:

$node = entity_load('node', $nids[1]);

And the return value is a node object. To load multiple nodes, you can use the entity_load_multiple() function:

$nodes = entity_load_multiple('node', $nids);

Which then returns an array of entity objects keyed by their ids.

A bonus nugget of information is that both of these functions are wrappers for the storage manager of the entities in question. They basically retrieve the storage manager statically and then call the load() and loadMultiple() methods, respectively, on it:

Statically, you could do similarly:

$node_storage = \Drupal::entityManager()->getStorage('node');

// Load multiple nodes
$node_storage->loadMultiple($ids);
// Load a single node
$node_storage->load($id);

But better yet, you could use dependency injection and retrieve the storage class from the container:

$node_storage = $container->get('entity.manager')->getStorage('node');

And then proceed with the loading. Using dependency injection is usually the recommended way to go when it’s possible, i.e. when working within a class. This makes it easier to test your class and better decouples it from the rest of the application.

Conclusion

In this article we’ve seen how to work with querying and loading entities in Drupal 8. There has been an overhaul of the D7 EntityFieldQuery class that turned into a robust API for querying both content and configuration entities. We’ve looked at querying content entities but the system works just the same with config entities. And that is a bit of a win for the new Drupal 8 entity system.

We’ve also seen how to load entities based on the IDs resulted in these queries and what is actually behind the wrapper functions that perform these operations. Next up, we are going to look at defining our own content entity type in Drupal 8. For a refresher on how we do it in Drupal 7, you can check out these Sitepoint articles on the subject.

Jun 18 2014
Jun 18

How to Build a Drupal 8 Module

In the previous article on Drupal 8 module development, we’ve looked at creating block types and forms. We’ve seen that blocks are now reusable and how everything we need to do for defining block types happens in one single class. Similarly, form generation functions are also grouped under one class with specific methods performing tasks similar to what we are used to in Drupal 7.

In this tutorial, I will continue where we left off. I will illustrate how we can turn our DemoForm into a form used to store a value through the Drupal 8 configuration system. Following that, we will talk a bit about the service container and dependency injection by way of illustration.

Don’t forget that you can check out this repository if you want to get all the code we write in this tutorial series.

When we first defined our DemoForm, we extended the FormBase class which is the simplest implementation of the FormInterface. However, Drupal 8 also comes with a ConfigFormBase that provides some additional functionality which makes it very easy to interact with the configuration system.

What we will do now is transform DemoForm into one which will be used to store the email address the user enters. The first thing we should do is replace the extended class with ConfigFormBase (and of course use it):

use Drupal\Core\Form\ConfigFormBase;

class DemoForm extends ConfigFormBase {

Before we move on to changing other things in the form, let’s understand a bit how simple configuration works in Drupal 8. I say simple because there are also configuration entities that are more complex and that we will not cover today. As it stands now, configuration provided by modules (core or contrib) is stored in YAML files. On enabling a module, this data gets imported into the database (for better performance while working with it). Through the UI we can change this configuration which is then easily exportable to YAML files for deployment across different sites.

A module can provide default configuration in a YAML file located in the config/install folder in the module root directory. The convention for naming this file is to prefix it with the name of the module. So let’s create one called demo.settings.yml. Inside this file, let’s paste the following:

demo:
  email_address: [email protected]

This is a nested structure (like an associative array in PHP). Under the key demo, we have another key|value pair. And usually to access these nested values we use a dot(.). In our case demo.email_address.

Once we have this file in place, an important thing you need to remember is that this file gets imported only when the module is installed. So go ahead and reinstall it. And now we can turn back to our form and go through the methods that need adapting one by one.

This is how the buildForm() method should look like now:

public function buildForm(array $form, array &$form_state) {
  
  $form = parent::buildForm($form, $form_state);
  
  $config = $this->config('demo.settings');
  
  $form['email'] = array(
    '#type' => 'email',
    '#title' => $this->t('Your .com email address.'),
    '#default_value' => $config->get('demo.email_address')
  );
  
  return $form;
}

First of all, as opposed to FormBase, the ConfigFormBase class implements this method as well in order to add elements to the form array (a submit button). So we can use what the parent did before adding our own elements.

Now for the configuration part. Drupal 8 provides a Config object that we can use to interact with the configuration. Some classes already have it available through dependency injection. ConfigFormBase is one such class.

As you can see, we are using the config() method of the parent class to retrieve a Config object populated with our demo.settings simple configuration. Then, for the #default_value of the email form element, we use the get() method of the Config object to retrieve the value of the email address.

Next, we only need to change the submit handler because the validateForm() method can stay the same for now:

public function submitForm(array &$form, array &$form_state) {
  
  $config = $this->config('demo.settings');
  $config->set('demo.email_address', $form_state['values']['email']);
  $config->save();
  
  return parent::submitForm($form, $form_state);
}

In this method we first retrieve the Config object for our configuration (like we did before). Then, we use its set() method to change the value of the email_address to the value the user submitted. Then we use the save() method to save the configuration. Lastly, we extend the parent submit handler because it does contain some functionality (in this case it sets a Drupal message to the screen).

And that’s pretty much it. You can clear the cache and try it out. By submitting a new email address, you are storing it in the configuration. The module demo.settings.yml file won’t change of course, but you can go and export the demo.settings configuration and import it into another site.

The service container and dependency injection

The next thing we are going to look at is the service container. The idea behind services is to split functionality into reusable components. Therefore a service is a PHP class that performs some global operations and that is registered with the service container in order to be accessed.

Dependency injection is the way through which we pass objects to other objects in order to ensure decoupling. Each service needs to deal with one thing and if it needs another service, the latter can be injected into the former. But we’ll see how in a minute.

Going forward, we will create a very simple service and register it with the container. It will only have one real method that returns a simple value. Then, we will inject that service as a dependency to our DemoController and make use of the value provided by the service.

In order to register a service, we need to create a demo.services.yml file located in the root of our module, with the following contents:

services:
    demo.demo_service:
        class: Drupal\demo\DemoService

The file naming convention is module_name.services.yml.

The first line creates an array of services. The second line defines the first service (called demo_service, prefixed by the module name). The third line specifies the class that will be instantiated for this service. It follows to create the DemoService.php class file in the src/ folder of our module. This is what my service does (nothing really, it’s just to illustrate how to use it):

<?php

/**
 * @file
 * Contains Drupal\demo\DemoService.
 */

namespace Drupal\demo;

class DemoService {
  
  protected $demo_value;
  
  public function __construct() {
    $this->demo_value = 'Upchuk';
  }
  
  public function getDemoValue() {
    return $this->demo_value;
  }
  
}

No need to explain anything here as it’s very basic. Next, let’s turn to our DemoController and use this service. There are two ways we can do this: accessing the container globally through the \Drupal class or use dependency injection to pass an object of this class to our controller. Best practice says we should do it the second way, so that’s what we’ll do. But sometimes you will need to access a service globally. For that, you can do something like this:

$service = \Drupal::service('demo.demo_service');

And now $service is an object of the class DemoService we just created. But let’s see how to inject our service in the DemoController class as a dependency. I will explain first what needs to be done, then you’ll see the entire controller with all the changes made to it.

First, we need access to the service container. With controllers, this is really easy. We can extend the ControllerBase class which gives us that in addition to some other helpers. Alternatively, our Controller can implement the ContainerInjectionInterface that also gives us access to the container. But we’ll stick to ControllerBase so we’ll need to use that class.

Next, we need to also use the Symfony 2 ContainerInterface as a requirement of the create() method that instantiates another object of our controller class and passes to it the services we want.

Finally, we’ll need a constructor to get the passed service objects (the ones that create() returns) and assign them to properties for later use. The order in which the objects are returned by the create() method needs to be reflected in the order they are passed to the constructor.

So let’s see our revised DemoController:

<?php

/**
 * @file
 * Contains \Drupal\demo\Controller\DemoController.
 */

namespace Drupal\demo\Controller;

use Drupal\Core\Controller\ControllerBase;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerInterface;

/**
 * DemoController.
 */
class DemoController extends ControllerBase {
  
  protected $demoService;
  
  /**
   * Class constructor.
   */
  public function __construct($demoService) {
    $this->demoService = $demoService;
  }
  
  /**
   * {@inheritdoc}
   */
  public static function create(ContainerInterface $container) {
    return new static(
      $container->get('demo.demo_service')
    );
  }
  
  /**
   * Generates an example page.
   */
  public function demo() {
    return array(
      '#markup' => t('Hello @value!', array('@value' => $this->demoService->getDemoValue())),
    );
  }
}

As you can see, all the steps are there. The create() method creates a new instance of our controller class passing to it our service retrieved from the container. And in the end, an instance of the DemoService class gets stored in the $demoService property, and we can use it to call its getDemoValue() method. And this value is then used in the Hello message. Clear your cache and give it a try. Go to the demo/ path and you should see Hello Upchuk! printed on the page.

I’m sure you can see the power of the service container as we can now write decoupled functionality and pass it where it’s needed. I did not show you how, but you can also declare dependencies when you register services. This means that when Drupal instantiates a service object, it will do so for all its dependencies as well, and pass them to its constructor. You can read more about how to do that on this documentation page.

Conclusion

In this article we’ve looked at a lot of cool stuff. We’ve seen how the configuration system manages simple configuration and what we have available form-wise for this. I do encourage you to explore how the ConfigFormBase is implemented and what you have available if you extend it. Additionally, you should play around in the UI with importing/exporting configuration between sites. This will be a great improvement for the deployment process from now on.

Then, we looked at services, what they are and how they work. A great way of maintaining reusable and decoupled pieces of functionality accessible from anywhere. And I do hope the concept of dependency injection is no longer so scary (if it was for you). It is basically the equivalent of passing parameters to procedural functions, but done using constructor methods (or setters), under the hood, by Symfony and its great service container.

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