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Apr 14 2021
Apr 14

This month I gave a talk at South Carolina Drupal User Group on Getting Started with Electron. Electron allows you to use your web developer skills to create desktop applications. I based this talk on some of my recent side projects and the Electron Project Starter I posted the end of last year.

[embedded content]

If you would like to join us please check out our up coming events on MeetUp for meeting times, locations, and remote connection information.

We frequently use these presentations to practice new presentations, try out heavily revised versions, and test out new ideas with a friendly audience. So if some of the content of these videos seems a bit rough please understand we are all learning all the time and we are open to constructive feedback. If you want to see a polished version checkout our group members’ talks at camps and cons.

If you are interested in giving a practice talk, leave me a comment here, contact me through Drupal.org, or find me on Drupal Slack. We’re excited to hear new voices and ideas. We want to support the community, and that means you.

Mar 13 2020
Mar 13

This month’s SC DUG featured Chris from MindGrub and Kaylan from Pantheon talking about Load Testing.

Launching a website can be a nerve-wracking experience, often times with developers working up until the wire trying to finish that one last feature. If only there was a crystal ball that would show you a vision of how your site would fare when the masses were set loose upon it.

Good news for you, there is! Load testing.

[embedded content]

View the slides from this talk.

We frequently use these presentations to practice new presentations, try out heavily revised versions, and test out new ideas with a friendly audience. If you want to see a polished version checkout our group members’ talks at camps and cons. So if some of the content of these videos seems a bit rough please understand we are all learning all the time and we are open to constructive feedback.

If you would like to join us please check out our up coming events on MeetUp for meeting times, locations, and remote connection information.

Feb 15 2020
Feb 15

This month for SC DUG I gave a talk on the importance of self-directed learning for professional development as a developer — or really any other modern career. It was an extension and revision of my December blog post on the same topic. The presentation runs a hair over 30 minutes, and parts of the discussion are included as well.

[embedded content]

We frequently use these presentations to practice new presentations, try out heavily revised versions, and test out new ideas with a friendly audience. If you want to see a polished version checkout our group members’ talks at camps and cons. So if some of the content of these videos seems a bit rough please understand we are all learning all the time and we are open to constructive feedback.

If you would like to join us please check out our up coming events on MeetUp for meeting times, locations, and remote connection information.

Dec 23 2019
Dec 23

From time to time conversations come up among developers, and other fellow travelers, about being self-taught vs getting formal training. Over time I’ve come to realize that the further and further you get into your career, the less the distinction means anything; eventually we are all mostly self-taught.

I’ve written before about the value of my liberal arts education and I stand by my assertion that what I learned in that setting was, and is, valuable to my life and work. But just because something was useful to life does not mean it was the only way to acquire the skills. It’s a good way for many people, but far from the only way.

For anyone in a technical field, and most professional fields really, to succeed over time you need to learn new tools, skills, and techniques. The tools I knew when I graduated college are all largely outmoded or significantly upgraded, and I’ve had to learn a variety of technologies that didn’t exist in 2001.

Within the Drupal community lots of people talk about being self-taught, sometimes with pride sometimes with embarrassment, but in truth very few people were formally trained on the platform. Lots of very successful developers in the Drupal community (and beyond) have degrees in fields like religion and art history, not computer science, and have taught themselves how to do awesome things. In fact, I’ll argue that just about every Drupaler taught themselves most of what they know about Drupal. How they did that can vary widely, but we are a community with few formal training programs and lots of people who stumbled into Drupal trying to solve a non-technical problem. Even advanced workshops at conferences dig deep into one small area and expect you to generalize that knowledge to your projects, which I count as self-teaching. For example, I had a friend ask the other day about how to control the PDO connection settings in Drupal 7 — which I didn’t know how to do, but knew they were similar to Drupal 8 — so I sent him my Drupal 8 instructions and he figured it out how from there. He’s now taught himself how to do what he needed for that project and in the process generalized the approach for whatever he may need next time.

So then it is important for all of us to find, and hopefully share, techniques for self-teaching — even for those who have some kind of formal training. Here are my suggestions for people who are starting out and haven’t yet found the pattern that works for them:

  1. Assume you first solution is wrong. Most of us have, or will, stumble our way through a project where we don’t really know what we’re doing without a lot of support. We usually learn a great deal in the process, and launching those projects can feel pretty good cause you’ve succeeded at something hard. It is easy to get into the habit of assuming the solutions from that project were correct because they worked. In truth those projects are really rough around the edges, and just because we got it to work does not mean the solution was good. Assuming the first solution is good enough forever is how you become an expert beginner which then takes a lot of effort to undo. Once you have a working solution, step back and see if you can think of a better one, or see if you now can guess better search terms to see if someone else wrote up a different solution to the same problem. Admit your work could be better and try to improve it.
  2. Learn a few more programming languages. Most people who are self-taught from the start, and even some who have a BA/BS in Computer Science, only know 2 or 3 programming languages (PHP, JS, and CSS+HTML are often the only languages new people learn at first). One of the courses I took by chance in college forced me to learn 8 in 16 weeks. It was grueling, miserable, and darned useful. I can still learn a new language in just a couple weeks and rarely do I hit a language construct I don’t recognize. You don’t need to go that far. When I first started out a mentor told me you should learn a new language every year, and for several I did. Some of those, not the languages I learned in college, are the ones I use most day-to-day. All told I’ve spent time writing code in more than twenty different languages. That many isn’t terribly useful but the more languages you learn, the more you learn to understand the elements of your primary language.
  3. Learn basic algorithms and to measure complexity. The kind of thinking that goes into formal algorithms will help you be a better developer overall; badly thought through processes is the place I tend to see the largest gaps between developers with and without formal training. Any college-level CS program will put you through an algorithms course that teaches a variety of specific algorithms and force you to understand their structures. If you didn’t go through one of those programs, this is probably the course that will help you the most. On the one hand most of us rarely rewrite these algorithms as on modern platforms some library or another will provide a better version than we are likely to craft for our project. But learning what they are, when they are used, and how to understand their performance is useful for any project that involves lots of data or processing. MIT has a version of their algorithms course from 2011 online, or find one through another provider. Even if you just watch the lectures (really watching, not just vaguely have them on while cooking and cleaning), you can learn a great deal of useful information. I learned a lot watching those lectures as it refreshed and updated my understanding of the topics.
  4. Find and learn from mentors. Notice I used a plural there; you should try to find a few people willing to help you learn your profession, and more generally help you learn to advance in your field. Most of us benefit from learning from the experiences of multiple people, and who we need to learn from changes over time. I had the great experience of having a few wonderful mentors when I was first starting out, and much of the advice they gave me still serves me well. Some of it contradicted, and resolving those contradictions forced me to learn to do things my own way and find my own solutions.
  5. Learn other platforms. This is both a protection against future shifts in the market, and also a way to see how things work from outside your current professional bubble. Drupal developers can learn a lot from writing a WordPress plugin, or better yet an add-on for a platform in another language (think about Plone, Gatsby, or Hugo). Or try to learn to work with a platform like Salesforce or AWS. Other platforms have different communities, different learning styles, and different patterns. Like understanding additional languages, different platforms help you broaden your understanding and provide insights you can bring back to your main work.
  6. Learn to give and take criticism. Part of learning is getting feedback on your work, and part of being on a team is sharing feedback with others. If you took art or music classes in high school or college you probably learned some of the basic lessons you need here, but if you didn’t, consider taking one now at your local community college or art center. The arts are wonderful for getting experience with criticism. For all art is often open to interpretation, it also requires specific skills. If you play off-key, it sounds wrong. If your sculpture collapses under its own weight, the project failed. If your picture’s subject is out of focus, you need to re-shoot it. Sure there are brilliant artists who can violate all the rules, but if you have never experienced an art critique you are not one of those artists. The experience of getting direct, blunt, and honest feedback will help you understand its value and how to give that feedback yourself.
  7. Share what you think you know. We learn a great deal with we teach others. Both because it forces us to refine our thinking and understanding so we can explain it, and because learners ask questions we cannot answer off the top of our heads. This can be user group or conference presentations, internal trainings for your team, mentoring junior developers, writing a blog, or anything else that gets your from learning to teaching. It’s okay if you’re not 100% right, that’s part of how we learn. A few years ago I was doing a joint project with a junior developer who asked me a lot of questions, and pushed hard when she thought I was making mistakes. When she asked why I was selecting a solution or setting a pattern, she was never satisfied with “because that’s the best way to do it.” She wanted me to explain why that was the best way. If I couldn’t walk her through it right away, I went back and hunted for reference material to explain it or if that failed I tested her counter ideas against my plans to see if I was missing something. While I was usually right, not always and we did make changes based on her feedback. More importantly it forced me to show my work in fine detail which was a good exercise for me and gave her insights to help her do better work.
  8. Find your own patterns. At the start I said this list was for people who didn’t have their own patterns yet. In the long-run of your career you need to figure out what you need to know to get to where you want to go next. Eventually you will need to find a pattern that works for you and the life you are living. No one can tell you what that is, nor how to learn it all yourself. Experiment with learning styles, areas of work, roles, and types of projects as much as you are able until you feel your way to the right solutions for you.
Oct 17 2019
Oct 17

The Drupal 8 Salesforce Suite allows you to map Drupal entities to Salesforce objects using a 1-to-1 mapping. To do this it provides a series of field mapping types that allow you to select how you want to relate the data between the two systems. Each field type provides handling to help ensure the data is handled correctly on each side of the system.

As of this writing the suite provides six usable field mapping types:

  • Properties — The most common type to handle mapping data fields.
  • Record Type — A special handler to support Salesforce record type settings when needed.
  • Related IDs — Handles translating SFIDs to Drupal Entity IDs when two objects are related in both systems.
  • Related Properties — For handling properties across a relationship (when possible).
  • Constant — A constant value on the Drupal side that can be pushed to Salesforce.
  • Token — A value set via Drupal Token.

There is a seventh called Broken to handle mappings that have changed and need a fallback until its fixed. The salesforce_examples module also includes a very simple example called Hardcoded the shows how to create a mapping with a fixed value (similar to, but less powerful than, Constant field).

These six handle the vast majority of use cases but not all.  Fortunately the suite was designed using Drupal 8 annotated plugins , so you can add your own as needed. There is an example in the suite’s example module, and you can review the code of the ones that are included, but I think some people would find an overview helpful.

As an example I’m using the plugin I created to add support for related entities to the webform submodule of the suite (I’m referencing the patch in #10 cause that’s current as of this writing, but you should actually use whatever version is most recent or been accepted).

Like all good annotated plugins to tell Drupal about it all we have to do is create the file in the right place. In this case that is: [my_module_root]/src/Plugins/SalesforceMappingField/[ClassName] or more specifically: salesforce_webform/src/Plugin/SalesforceMappingField/WebformEntityElements.php

At the top of the file we need to define the namespace, add some use statements.


Next we need to provide the required annotation for the plugin manager to use. In this case it just provides the plugin’s ID, which needs to be unique across all plugins of this type, and a translated label.

/**
 * Adapter for Webform elements.
 *
 * @Plugin(
 *   id = "WebformEntityElements",
 *   label = @Translation("Webform entity elements")
 * )
 */

Now we define the class itself which must extend SalesforceMappingFieldPluginBase.

class WebformEntityElements extends SalesforceMappingFieldPluginBase {

With those things in place we can start the real work.  The mapping field plugins are made up of a few parts: 

  • The configuration form elements which display on the mapping settings edit form.
  • A value function to provide the actual outbound value from the field.
  • Nice details to limit when the mapping should be used, and support dependency management.

The buildConfigurationForm function returns an array of form elements. The base class provides some basic pieces of that array that you should plan to use and modify. So first we call the function on that parent class, and then make our changes:

 /**
   * {@inheritdoc}
   */
  public function buildConfigurationForm(array $form, FormStateInterface $form_state) {
    $pluginForm = parent::buildConfigurationForm($form, $form_state);
 
    $options = $this->getConfigurationOptions($form['#entity']);
 
    if (empty($options)) {
      $pluginForm['drupal_field_value'] += [
        '#markup' => t('No available webform entity reference elements.'),
      ];
    }
    else {
      $pluginForm['drupal_field_value'] += [
        '#type' => 'select',
        '#options' => $options,
        '#empty_option' => $this->t('- Select -'),
        '#default_value' => $this->config('drupal_field_value'),
        '#description' => $this->t('Select a webform entity reference element.'),
      ];
    }
    // Just allowed to push.
    $pluginForm['direction']['#options'] = [
      MappingConstants::SALESFORCE_MAPPING_DIRECTION_DRUPAL_SF => $pluginForm['direction']['#options'][MappingConstants::SALESFORCE_MAPPING_DIRECTION_DRUPAL_SF],
    ];
    $pluginForm['direction']['#default_value'] =
      MappingConstants::SALESFORCE_MAPPING_DIRECTION_DRUPAL_SF;
    return $pluginForm;
 
  }

In this case we are using a helper function to get us a list of entity reference fields on this plugin (details are in the patch and unimportant to this discussion). We then make those fields the list of Drupal fields for the settings form. The array we got from the parent class already provides a list of Salesforce fields in $pluginForm[‘salesforce_field’] so we don’t have to worry about that part.  Since the salesforce_webform module is push-only on its mappings, this plugin was designed to be push only as well, and so limits to direction options to be push only. The default set of options is:    

'#options' => [
    MappingConstants::SALESFORCE_MAPPING_DIRECTION_DRUPAL_SF => t('Drupal to SF'),
    MappingConstants::SALESFORCE_MAPPING_DIRECTION_SF_DRUPAL => t('SF to Drupal'),
    MappingConstants::SALESFORCE_MAPPING_DIRECTION_SYNC => t('Sync'),
 ],

And you can limit those anyway that makes sense for your plugin.

With the form array completed, we now move on to the value function. This is generally the most interesting part of the plugin since it does the work of actually setting the value returned by the mapping.

  /**
   * {@inheritdoc}
   */
  public function value(EntityInterface $entity, SalesforceMappingInterface $mapping) {
    $element_parts = explode('__', $this->config('drupal_field_value'));
    $main_element_name = reset($element_parts);
    $webform = $this->entityTypeManager->getStorage('webform')->load($mapping->get('drupal_bundle'));
    $webform_element = $webform->getElement($main_element_name);
    if (!$webform_element) {
      // This reference field does not exist.
      return;
    }
 
    try {
 
      $value = $entity->getElementData($main_element_name);
 
      $referenced_mappings = $this->mappedObjectStorage->loadByDrupal($webform_element['#target_type'], $value);
      if (!empty($referenced_mappings)) {
        $mapping = reset($referenced_mappings);
        return $mapping->sfid();
      }
    }
    catch (\Exception $e) {
      return NULL;
    }
  }

In this case we are finding the entity referred to in the webform submission, loading any mapping objects that may exist for that entity, and returning the Salesforce ID of the mapped object if it exists.  Yours will likely need to do something very different.

There are actually two related functions defined by the plugin interface, defined in the base class, and available for override as needed for setting pull and push values independently:

  /**
   * An extension of ::value, ::pushValue does some basic type-checking and
   * validation against Salesforce field types to protect against basic data
   * errors.
   *
   * @param \Drupal\Core\Entity\EntityInterface $entity
   * @param \Drupal\salesforce_mapping\Entity\SalesforceMappingInterface $mapping
   *
   * @return mixed
   */
  public function pushValue(EntityInterface $entity, SalesforceMappingInterface $mapping);
 
  /**
   * An extension of ::value, ::pullValue does some basic type-checking and
   * validation against Drupal field types to protect against basic data
   * errors.
   *
   * @param \Drupal\salesforce\SObject $sf_object
   * @param \Drupal\Core\Entity\EntityInterface $entity
   * @param \Drupal\salesforce_mapping\Entity\SalesforceMappingInterface $mapping
   *
   * @return mixed
   */
  public function pullValue(SObject $sf_object, EntityInterface $entity, SalesforceMappingInterface $mapping);
 

But be careful overriding them directly. The base class provides some useful handling of various data types that need massaging between Drupal and Salesforce, you may lose that if you aren’t careful. I encourage you to look at the details of both pushValue and pullValue before working on those.

Okay, with the configuration and values handled, we just need to deal with programmatically telling Drupal when it can pull and push these fields. Most of the time you don’t need to do this, but you can simplify some of the processing by overriding pull() and push() to make sure the have the right response hard coded instead of derived from other sources. In this case pulling the field would be bad, so we block that:

  /**
   * {@inheritdoc}
   */
  public function pull() {
    return FALSE;
  }

Also, we only want this mapping to appear as an option if the site has the webform module enabled. Without it there is no point in offering it at all. The plugin interface provides a function called isAllowed() for this purpose:

  /**
   * {@inheritdoc}
   */
  public static function isAllowed(SalesforceMappingInterface $mapping) {
    return \Drupal::service('module_handler')->moduleExists('webform');
  }

You can also use that function to limit a field even more tightly based on the mapping itself.

To further ensure the configuration of this mapping entity defines its dependencies correctly we can define additional dependencies in getDependencies(). Again here we are tied to the Webform module and we should enforce that during and config exports:

  /**
   * {@inheritdoc}
   */
  public function getDependencies(SalesforceMappingInterface $mapping) {
    return ['module' => ['webform']];
  }

And that is about it.  Once the class exists and is properly setup, all you need to do is rebuild the caches and you should see your new mapping field as an option on your Salesforce mapping objects (at least when isAllowed() is returning true).

Apr 07 2014
Apr 07

The first revision control system I ever used was called RCS. It was the pre-cursor to CVS and stored all revision data locally. It was nifty but very limited and not suited for group development. CVS was the first shared revisioning system I used. It was rock solid, IMHO. But it had a few big problems, like the inability to rename or move files. Everything had to be deleted and re-added. 

Since those days, I've used several other revisioning systems: Perforce, Bitkeeper, Clearcase, Subversion and GIT.

I'm tired of learning yet another system. I just want to know which horse is going to win the race for the forseeable future and go all in.

That's where Google Trends comes in very handy. It quickly reveals that I need to bet on GIT. 

I just hope I can make it through the next 5 years or more before having to learn the next greatest solution to our shared problem of tracking code revisions.

Sep 30 2012
Sep 30

I recently worked on a project which required a updated version of the jQuery library. While there is the jQuery Update module, it only allows you to upgrade Drupal 6 to jQuery 1.3. If you really know what you're doing and want to upgrade beyond that version, you can either hack core or create your own simple module to do it. While hacking core is certainly the easier approach (simply overwriting misc/jquery.js with a newer version), it is very bad practice. You do not want to get yourself in the habit of altering Drupal core unless you want to kill your upgrade path and deal with a new slew of bugs and unpredictable behavior.

Let's start by creating an admin area for configuring the version of jQuery we want to use.

/**
* Module configuration admin form.
*
*/
function mymodule_admin_form() {
 
$form['mymodule_custom_jquery'] = array(
   
'#type' => 'checkbox',
   
'#title' => t('Override Jquery'),
   
'#description' => t('Replace the version of jQuery that ships with Drupal
      (jQuery 1.2.6) with the jQuery library specified below. You will need to
      flush your cache when turning this feature on or off.'
),
   
'#default_value' => variable_get('mymodule_custom_jquery', 0),
  );
 
$form['mymodule_custom_jquery_file'] = array(
   
'#type' => 'textfield',
   
'#title' => t('Jquery file location'),
   
'#description' => t('Specify the location of the updated jQuery library
      you would like to use. The location is relative to the docroot and
      so should probably begin with "sites/".'
),
   
'#size' => 128,
   
'#default_value' => variable_get('mymodule_custom_jquery_file', NULL),
  );

  </span>$form = system_settings_form($form);

  return </span>$form;
}
?>

Next, we're going to write a validation hook that simply makes sure the file exists.

/**
* Admin form validation callback.
*
*/
function mymodule_admin_form_validate($form, &$form_state) {
 
$file = trim($form_state['values']['mymodule_custom_jquery_file']);
 
$form_state['values']['mymodule_custom_jquery_file'] = $file;

  </span>// Only validate this value if js override is turned on
 
if (variable_get('mymodule_custom_jquery', 0)) {
    if (!
file_exists($file)) {
     
form_set_error('mymodule_custom_jquery_file', t('The file you specified does not exist: !file.', array('!file' => $file)));
    }
  }
}
?>

And lastly, we use hook_preprocess_page() to safely replace the jQuery that ships with Drupal core with our own version.

/**
* Implementation of hook_preprocess_page().
*/
function mymodule_preprocess_page(&$variables) {
  if (
variable_get('mymodule_custom_jquery', 0)) {
   
$file = variable_get('mymodule_custom_jquery_file', 0);
   
$scripts = drupal_add_js();

    </span>// remove core jquery and add our own
   
unset($scripts['core']['misc/jquery.js']);
   
$add_scripts['core'][$file] = array(
     
'cache' => TRUE,
     
'defer' => FALSE,
     
'preprocess' => TRUE,
    );
   
$scripts['core'] = array_merge($add_scripts['core'], $scripts['core']);
   
$variables['scripts'] = drupal_get_js('header', $scripts);
  }
}
?>

Make note of the line:

    $scripts['core'] = array_merge($add_scripts['core'], $scripts['core']);
?>

We are careful to add our new jQuery include at the beginning of the array (where the original jquery.js include was) in order to meet any jquery dependencies in the scripts that follow.

Jan 10 2012
Jan 10

The following is a guest post by Mitchel Xavier

One of the challenges of developing with Drupal is to understand Drupal’s structure. Until now, when working with the DOM structure, the DOM inspector has been the best tool for viewing the structure. A new tool has been created to make the visualization of the DOM structure much easier to interpret. It is a Firefox add-on and is called Tilt 3D. It creates 3 dimensional interactive representation of the DOM elements as a layered visual image.

A requirement to use Tilt 3D is that your browser supports WebGL. WebGL is a Javascript software library which allows for the creation of 3D graphics very quickly and without the requirement for additional plugins. Currently Firefox is the only browser to support this tool. Firefox has supported WebGL since version 4. The other requirement for Tilt 3D is that it is supported with a capable graphics card.

Tilt 3D is extremely useful for many reasons. When you click on each node, you can see the structure of each element. You can view the html and css of each node. It is great for debugging html structure issues. It also provides the option to refresh in real time during all changes made in Firebug.

Tilt 3D was created by Victor Prof and Rob Campbell, who created Firebug. One of the advantages of Tilt 3D is it’s smooth interface. It is very intuitive to use and creates a completely new way of interacting and obtaining information about your Drupal website. If you are starting work on an existing Drupal project, Tilt 3D would be a great way to understand the structure of that particular project.

[embedded content]

Mitchel Xavier is a Drupal website designer and Drupal 7 specialist.

Apr 01 2009
Apr 01

Developers are all familiar with the default behavior of the drupal menu systems "local tasks" (aka tabs). These appear throughout most Drupal sites, primarily in the administration area, but also on other pages like the user profile.

Generally, developers are pretty good about creating logical local tasks, meaning only those menu items which logically live under another menu item (like view, edit, revisions, workflow, etc... live under the node/% menu item).

But sometimes, these tabs either don't really make sense as tabs or you simply want to have the flexibility of working with the items as "normal menu items", or those menu items which appear under admin/build/menu.

I recently wanted to move some of the tabs on the user profile page (user/UID) into the main menu so that I could include them as blocks.

For some reason, developers think the user profile page is a great place to put tabs for user related pages such as friendslist, tracker, bookmarks, notifications and so on. But these types of items are less a part of the user's account information than they are resources for specific users. Personally, I would not think to look at my account information on a site to find stuff like favorites or buddies. I'd expect those items to be presented somewhere much more obvious like a navigation block.

Initially, this may seem like a trivial task. My first thought was to simply use hook_menu_alter() and change the 'type' value of the menu item from MENU_LOCAL_TASK to MENU_NORMAL_ITEM. However, for reasons I don't understand well enough to explain in detail, this does not work.

In order to achieve the desired result, you must change the path of the menu item and incorporate the '%user_uid_optional' argument, replacing the default '%user' argument.

All very confusing, I know. Let's look at an example.

The notifications module (which provides notification on changes to subscribed to content) uses the user profile page rather heavily. I don't want its links there, I want them in the sidebar where users can always see them.

/**
* Implementation of hook_menu_alter().
*/
function MODULENAME_menu_alter(&amp;$callbacks) {
 
// NOTIFICATIONS MODULE
 
$callbacks['notifications/%user_uid_optional'] = $callbacks['user/%user/notifications'];
 
$callbacks['notifications/%user_uid_optional']['type'] = MENU_NORMAL_ITEM;
  unset(
$callbacks['user/%user/notifications']);
  <
SNIP>
}
?>

So I have moved the notifications menu into my own menu, changed the type, used %user_uid_optional instead of %user, and unset the original menu item.

This works fine except for the fact that you'll lose all of the other menu items under user/%user/notifications! You need to account for all menu items in the hierarchy to properly reproduce the tabs in the main menu system, so we add the following:

    $callbacks['notifications/%user_uid_optional/thread'] = $callbacks['user/%user/notifications/thread'];
    unset(
$callbacks['user/%user/notifications/thread']);

    </span>$callbacks['notifications/%user_uid_optional/nodetype'] = $callbacks['user/%user/notifications/nodetype'];
    unset(
$callbacks['user/%user/notifications/nodetype']);

    </span>$callbacks['notifications/%user_uid_optional/author'] = $callbacks['user/%user/notifications/author'];
    unset(
$callbacks['user/%user/notifications/author']);
?>

And of course, we don't want this code executing at all if our module is not enabled, so you'd want to wrap the whole thing in:

  if (module_exists('notifications')) {
 
  <
SNIP>

  }
?>

Keep in mind that not all modules implement menu items using hook_menu(). It's becoming more and more common for developers to rely on the views module to generate menu items, and this is a wise choice. Menus generated using views (ala bookmark module) can be modified to get the desired result without any custom code.

Feb 16 2008
Feb 16

The importance of project management tools is almost never fully appreciated. I am shocked at how common it is for a group of developers to go working without version control, ticket tracking, development documentation and so on. The very first thing I do when working with a new client is to make sure that they get these tools in place if they haven't already.

Those who are used to working without a complete set of project management tools never fail to appreciate the benefits of them once they are introduced. I consider it next to impossible for a team to work together without managing code and tasks in an efficient and highly organized way.[img_assist|nid=155|title=|desc=|link=none|align=right|width=250|height=156]

Hopefully you do not need to be sold on this idea and are using CVS or SVN to manage your project already. You likely have some sort of ticket system. It is a little less likely that you have both of these components integrated with each other.

When it comes to choosing a solution for project management software, a die-hard Drupal user has a dilemna. On one hand, Drupal seems as though it should be the perfect solution. It's fully customizable, has lots of nifty project management related modules and, most importantly, it's Drupal! Why would you not use it? "Eating your own dogfood" is the way to go, right? Meh...

Drupal is generally considered a content management system. Personally, I like to refer to it as a website management system. It is great at managing website related stuff like users, posts, permissions, categorization, and so on. Using contrib modules, you can customize and enhance this core functionality to almost no end. But at the end of the day, Drupal is designed to handle web content and the users that are accessing it. That's what a content management system is (and if content is king, that would make Drupal... well... God).

Managing a project, on the other hand, is a much different business from managing a website. Yes, you have many shared properties such as content and users. But the essence of project management involves things that have nothing to do with website management such as a revision controlled code base edited by multiple users, a need for efficient ticket management, and ideally full integration of everything. Essentials also include stuff like a nice repository browser, user management interface for repository access, fancy reporting for tickets, organization of tasks by milestone, date, person, severity, etc...

It's a very tall order. Yes, you can do all this in Drupal, but not very well. You can piece together something that sorta kinda resembles a project management solution, but in the end, you need to invest a relatively large amount of time to create something that is less than ideal and will require ongoing tweaking and modification. Unless your business is creating an effective project management solution in Drupal (something I dream of!), you should not be using Drupal for project management.

I'm a one man shop, and I do not have time to spare. I cannot justify spending any time at all kludging together a project management solution for a client when there are already far superior solutions available at low cost. I would much rather pay someone a few bucks a month and be done with it. Let them deal with SVN administration and enhancements; let me focus on my primary task which is building cool sites with Drupal.

While there are numerous project management related service providers out there (Fogbugz, Basecamp , Beanstalk to name a few), I want to talk about my personal favorite, Unfuddle. Unfuddle has taken obvious inspiration from the folks over at 37signals, innovators of the simple, clean, effective, it-just-works web application. Unfuddle is an instant project management solution that takes minutes to set up and costs a few dollars a month. The time you'll save in not having to set up SVN and manage SVN users alone makes it worth every penny.

[img_assist|nid=156|title=|desc=|link=none|align=left|width=250|height=221]What you get with a solution such as unfuddle is a ready-to-use repository with integrated documentation, ticketing and reporting. It takes seconds to set up a new user account with permission levels fit for everyone from a developer (gimme root!) or a suit (look but don't touch).

From a single interface, you can browse code, tickets and documentation. Every component integrates with the others. You can even resolve a ticket with an SVN commit message, saving you the trouble of having to go and edit the ticket after your commit! Users can individually subscribe to whatever level of email notificaton they would like to recieve and how often. The developer can shut off all notifications while the manager can get a nice daily summary each morning of milestone completion progress, new tickets, added documentation and so on. The project manager can glance over one of the ticket reports and group tickets into milestones for reasonable short vs long term goals.

SVN comments link back to the tickets they are related to. Tickets contain links to the changesets that resolved them. Viewing these changesets, you can see a beautiful code diff and quickly see what fixed the problem. Senior team members can quickly and easily review code changes submitted by junior staff.

With tools like this available these days, it's just not worth it spending any effort whatever on a lesser solution.

Jul 23 2006
Jul 23

The number one quality that separates Drupal from other popular CMS is its API (most often referred to as "the Drupal API).  Drupal is designed explicitly to allow for adding, altering or removing core functionality. Thanks to this API, there are hundreds of third party modules available for Drupal. Some of these modules provide very specialized features. Others provide integration with the most popular services on the web (including Google Maps, Flickr, del.icio.us, Digg and more). All take advantage of the Drupal API and none include modification of core (again, the basic code base required to run Drupal).

Hacking

Enhancing software that doesn't provide an API usually involves modifying its core code directly. If software doesn't open up its functionality to developers, then developers are left to go in and manipulate the original source code to achieve their goals. In many cases, this is just how you have to do things. Drupal is not one of those cases.

To be clear, when I refer to 'hacked Drupal core', I'm referring specifically to modifications of the files that come with the standard distribution of Drupal, most importantly, the files that are in the /includes/ and /modules/ directories. All of the same concepts apply as well to third party modules, but that's not what I'll be focusing on here.

Who Cares?

Does it really make a difference whether you do things correctly as long as they work? Absolutely. While it may seem much more effective at first to edit Drupal core to add the features you want, this is a big mistake. Let's talk about some of the problems you will run into.

Updates

The first problem you'll likely run into is applying Drupal updates. The Drupal team is excellent about patching security vulnerabilities. This means that if you are steadfast in keeping your Drupal instance updated, your chances of getting 'hacked' are greatly reduced. However, if your team has modified Drupal core, applying updates becomes a painful process requiring careful scrutiny of each update and possibly an even more painful merge of those changes with your hacked core files. In my experience, rather than go through this unpleasant process, owners of sites with a hacked core tend to postpone applying patches and updates. The more the owner procrastinates, the more likely his site is to suffer an attack using a known exploit. Once your site has been exploited, there's no telling how long your site may be down or how long it will take you to recover.

Functionality

The next problem you may run into is broken functionality. By altering Drupal core files, you may be inadvertently modifying functionality depended upon by other parts of the system. You are messing around inside the "black box" that Drupal as a whole depends on. While you may think it's clever to go in and modify the phptemplate engine directly, what you could be very well doing is creating bugs somewhere else in your site. By the time you come across the problem, it is unlikely that you'll immediately realize that it is caused by the changes you made to phptemplate. And, friend, you are now in for a lot of hurt as you rip apart code trying to fix it.

Maintainability and Longevity

Drupal's API is known by hundreds of developers all around the globe. The hacks introduced by your $20/hr programmer found on craigslist are known only to one developer. Should you ever need to update or extend your site, you better have that $25/hr developer on staff or you better be using the Drupal API. If you play by the rules, you can hire any experienced Drupal developer.

Bottom Line

There are legitimate reasons to modify Drupal core. If you've found an actual bug in Drupal, the best thing you can do as a developer is to fix it and submit a patch. Likewise, if you've come up with an enhancement that you feel should live in core, submit it. Aside from these two reasons, neither you nor anyone in your employ should be touching anything in that drupal .tgz file.

If you want to develop extended functionality for Drupal, use the API. If you're hiring a Drupal consultant, find one who is familiar with the Drupal API. Find a developer who's active in the Drupal community. Hiring a knowledge Drupal developer may cost more initially, but if you plan on maintaining your site for any length of time, this investment is sure to pay off down the road.

Jun 27 2006
Jun 27

The contributions process for non-core Drupal themes and modules is in need of a revamp.

Currently the process is a very loose one that does not require adherence to any tagging conventions or release process. This makes it very difficult to know the status of the modules that make up a given site. I believe this probably results in many site admins out there just leaving their site as-is because the process of updating is somewhat confusing and tedious.

We want to fix this.

While there are existing 4.6, 4.7, etc... tags applied to contrib modules, they are not consistently used by module authors. Furthermore, tags are being applied inappropriately (4.7 tags applied to 4.6 code that is not actually upgraded).

Ultimately, I'd love to see version and update management built right into Drupal (in the same way it's built into most OSs and many software packages). Drupal might have a single page the admin can visit to check the status of his core Drupal installation as well as all modules and themes he is using. The process of upgrading to the latest versions could be a very simple matter of selecting desired updates and hitting a submit button.

That, however, is a long way off. We need to start by creating a process with which Drupal developers and contributors can "tag" their software releases and make those releases available quickly and easily.

To take part in defining this new release process, please visit "Versioning and release process for contributed projects" and leave a comment.

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