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Mar 02 2016
Mar 02

Drupal 8

With over 200 new features, Drupal 8 is officially here! Drupal is one of the world’s favorite open source content management platform.. and it just got even better. Here are some of the ways that Drupal 8 will benefit various groups of people.

Developers:

  • Configuration management – In prior versions of Drupal, most of the configuration was stored in the database.  The problem with this is that it is very difficult to keep track of versions of the configuration when it changes.  The only way to get configuration out of the database was to use a combination of modules such as strongarm and features to export things from the database into code.  This was often time-consuming and error prone.  Now with Drupal 8, configuration management is built-in so that carrying over configuration from development to production is a breeze.
  • Web services – Drupal 8 can now be used as a data source to output content as structured data such as XML or JSON.  This means that Drupal 8 can strictly be used as a back-end while the front-end could be developed completely separate with a framework such as AngularJS or Ember.  In other words “Headless Drupal” capabilities are now built-in instead of requiring various addon modules and lots of custom development.  

Content Editors:

  • Bundled WYSIWYG editor – Drupal 8 is the first version of Drupal to come with a bundled WYSIWYG editor.  Previously it was possible to add one of many different editors into Drupal but the setup was often time consuming and confusing.  Additionally there were so many choices that some users felt lost about which one to choose.  Over time CKEditor has become the most popular WYSIWYG editor for Drupal and now it is included out of the box.
  • In place editing – In addition to having CKEditor bundled in with Drupal 8, the Spark initiative is taking WYSIWYG concept a step further with true in place editing.  This would give editors the ability to change content, menus, etc. directly from the front-end view of the site without having to navigate to an admin page on the back end.  More info about the Spark initiative can be found here:  http://buytaert.net/spark-update-in-line-editing-in-drupal

End Users:

  • Mobile First – Previous versions of Drupal allowed developers to create responsive themes.  However some modules were not 100% compatible with responsive layouts.  Now with Drupal 8 all themes are mobile first which means that all community modules will be compatible with responsive layouts.  Additionally the default Drupal admin theme will be mobile friendly which should improve the experience for editors who want to author content from mobile devices.

Accessibility and Languages – Drupal 8 now has extensive support for accessibility standards including the adoption of many WAI-ARIA practices.  This will make content structures easier to understand for people with disabilities.  In addition to the accessibility improvements Drupal 8 now has multi-lingual support included.  Drupal 8 has the capability to reach more users than any previous version of Drupal.

Apr 28 2008
Apr 28

This article describes how to install the Drupal 6.2 CMS on MySQL 6.0, using the Falcon Storage Engine. The operating system is a default Ubuntu 8.04 "Hardy Heron" (x86) installation.

I will make a few assumptions here, in order to keep the instructions simple: a fresh OS install, no other MySQL databases or web services are running or have already been installed. Both MySQL and the web server are installed on the same host. You should be able to become root to install packages and to have access to the local file system and the system configuration.

This article will explain how to install and configure Apache/PHP, MySQL 6.0 and Drupal 6.2.

Prerequisites

Running Drupal requires a web server (e.g. Apache) and PHP. We will use the packages as shipped with the distribution and will then install a MySQL 6.0 preview binary from http://dev.mysql.com. Other web servers like lighttpd will work equally well, but this article focuses on using the Apache web server.

Fortunately the MySQL 5.0 client applications as shipped with Ubuntu Linux are compatible with the MySQL 6.0.x client/server protocol, so we only make use of the 6.0 server and will use the installed, pre-compiled client applications and libraries to connect to it - there is no need to recompile PHP or anything to get going!

First of all you have to make sure the following packages have been installed (e.g. by using a package management tool like the Adept Package Manager, synaptic, aptitude or apt-get):

  • apache2
  • libapache2-mod-php5
  • php5
  • php5-common
  • php5-mysql
  • php5-gd
  • mysql-client-5.0

To enable the mod_rewrite Apache module (as recommended for Drupal), you need to enter the directory /etc/apache2/mods-enabled and create a symlink to the module loading instructions:

cd /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/
sudo ln -s ../mods-available/rewrite.load .

This will ensure, that mod_rewrite will be loaded when Apache starts up.

Additionally, you have to edit the file /etc/apache2/sites-available/default and make one change. In the directives for the Directory /var/www, change AllowOverride from "None" to "All". This will make sure that Drupal can enable the rewrite engine to allow nicer looking URLs.

Now restart the Apache server to apply the changes:

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

To verify that Apache is up and running, try opening http://localhost/ in a browser on the same machine that runs the web server. You should get a simple page, stating that "It works!".

Installing the MySQL 6.0 Falcon preview

Now that the web server is up and running, we need to install a MySQL database server that the Drupal installation can use. Download mysql-6.0.5-alpha-pb87-linux-x86.tar.gz (or any newer package, if available) from http://downloads.mysql.com/forge/falcon_feature_preview/

Create a /etc/mysql/my.cnf file with the following content (replacing the existing file, if necessary):

[client]
socket=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock

[mysqld]
basedir=/usr/local/mysql
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data
socket=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
default-storage-engine=falcon

The default-storage-engine option will make sure that every CREATE TABLE statement will default to using the Falcon storage engine. Now extract the binary tarball distribution into /usr/local and perform the following steps to finalize the installation/configuration:

$ sudo groupadd mysql
$ sudo useradd -g mysql mysql
$ cd /usr/local
$ sudo tar zxvf ~/mysql-6.0.5-alpha-pb87-linux-x86.tar.gz -C /usr/local
$ cd /usr/local
$ sudo ln -s mysql-6.0.5-alpha-pb87-linux-x86 mysql
$ cd mysql
$ sudo chown -R mysql .
$ chgrp -R mysql .
$ scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
$ sudo chown -R root .
$ sudo chown -R mysql data
$ sudo ./bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

The installation procedure is outlined in more detail in the reference manual at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/6.0/en/installing-binary.html

If you want to enable the automatic startup of MySQL at system bootup time, you need to install an init script in /etc/init.d/ - follow the instructions as outlined in the reference manual. Note that the mysql.server script has been moved from the directory support-files to share/mysql for the binary tarball distributions and that the current 6.0 documentation has not been updated yet (I filed BUG#36382 about this).

Now start the server using the mysqld_safe script:

$ sudo /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe &

Next you should verify that you can connect to the server and that the Falcon storage engine is enabled:

$ mysqladmin version
mysqladmin  Ver 8.41 Distrib 5.0.51a, for debian-linux-gnu on i486
Copyright (C) 2000-2006 MySQL AB
This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license

Server version          6.0.5-alpha-pb87
Protocol version        10
Connection              Localhost via UNIX socket
UNIX socket             /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
Uptime:                 43 min 6 sec

Threads: 1  Questions: 6  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 15  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 8  Queries per second avg: 0.2

$ mysql -u root
[email protected]:(none) > SELECT * FROM information_schema.engines WHERE engine='Falcon';
+--------+---------+-----------------------+--------------+----+------------+
| ENGINE | SUPPORT | COMMENT               | TRANSACTIONS | XA | SAVEPOINTS |
+--------+---------+-----------------------+--------------+----+------------+
| Falcon | DEFAULT | Falcon storage engine | YES          | NO | YES        |
+--------+---------+-----------------------+--------------+----+------------+
1 row in set (0.12 sec)

Before performing the actual Drupal installation, you need to create a Drupal Database and a user account. I chose "drupal" as the user name and password, please use some more sensitive values for your own setup!

[email protected]:(none) > CREATE DATABASE drupal;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)

[email protected]:(none) > GRANT ALL ON drupal.* to 'drupal'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'drupal';
Query OK, 0 row affected (0.00 sec)

Now MySQL 6.0 is installed and ready!

Installing Drupal 6.2

Now that the web and database server have been set up and configured, it's time to perform the installation of our application, the Drupal content management system. Start by downloading drupal-6.2.tar.gz from http://drupal.org/ (by clicking on the Drupal 6.2 download link on the front page).

Remove the default start page /var/www/index.html and extract the content of the drupal tarball into this directory. Then change the ownerships of these files to the user that apache runs under (www-data by default):

$ sudo rm /var/www/index.html
$ sudo tar --strip-components=1 -zxvf drupal-6.2.tar.gz -C /var/www
$ sudo chown -R www-data /var/www

The Drupal package installation itself is now done, the remaining installation and configuration steps are performed in a browser by opening http://localhost/ in your browser (reload the page if you still see the "It works" default page).

DrupalInstall_1

Follow the instructions in the Drupal installation manual on how to perform the actual installation. In the "Database Configuration" dialogue, use the MySQL database username and password that you created earlier.

DrupalInstall_2

Now the Drupal installer should perform its duty and you should see you fresh Drupal installation up and running!

DrupalInstall_3

Once the installation has finished, let's verify that we're really running on Falcon by running the following query in a MySQL command line client:

mysql> SELECT TABLE_NAME, ENGINE from information_schema.tables WHERE TABLE_SCHEMA='drupal';
+-------------------------+--------+
| TABLE_NAME              | ENGINE |
+-------------------------+--------+
| access                  | Falcon |
| actions                 | Falcon |
| actions_aid             | Falcon |
| authmap                 | Falcon |
| batch                   | Falcon |
| blocks                  | Falcon |
| blocks_roles            | Falcon |
| boxes                   | Falcon |
| cache                   | Falcon |
| cache_block             | Falcon |
| cache_filter            | Falcon |
| cache_form              | Falcon |
| cache_menu              | Falcon |
| cache_page              | Falcon |
| cache_update            | Falcon |
| comments                | Falcon |
| files                   | Falcon |
| filter_formats          | Falcon |
| filters                 | Falcon |
| flood                   | Falcon |
| history                 | Falcon |
| menu_custom             | Falcon |
| menu_links              | Falcon |
| menu_router             | Falcon |
| node                    | Falcon |
| node_access             | Falcon |
| node_comment_statistics | Falcon |
| node_counter            | Falcon |
| node_revisions          | Falcon |
| node_type               | Falcon |
| permission              | Falcon |
| role                    | Falcon |
| sessions                | Falcon |
| system                  | Falcon |
| term_data               | Falcon |
| term_hierarchy          | Falcon |
| term_node               | Falcon |
| term_relation           | Falcon |
| term_synonym            | Falcon |
| url_alias               | Falcon |
| users                   | Falcon |
| users_roles             | Falcon |
| variable                | Falcon |
| vocabulary              | Falcon |
| vocabulary_node_types   | Falcon |
| watchdog                | Falcon |
+-------------------------+--------+
46 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Looks like we were successful - all Drupal tables are using the Falcon storage engine! Congratulations.

From here on, you can configure and change Drupal to your heart's content. Note however, that additional Drupal modules may contain code that is specific to the MyISAM or InnoDB storage engine, your mileage may vary. In that case it would be great to notify the module developers about these incompatibilities.

If you want to quickly populate a Drupal installation with content for testing, you can use the "Devel" module. I used it to create 500 users and 10.000 test pages on my demo installation. Even though this was performed within a virtual machine running VirtualBox, the system still was very responsive and the creation of the content proceeded amazingly fast! But I did not perform any serious benchmark or load tests (it would not make much sense in a VM anyway).

About Drupal Sun

Drupal Sun is an Evolving Web project. It allows you to:

  • Do full-text search on all the articles in Drupal Planet (thanks to Apache Solr)
  • Facet based on tags, author, or feed
  • Flip through articles quickly (with j/k or arrow keys) to find what you're interested in
  • View the entire article text inline, or in the context of the site where it was created

See the blog post at Evolving Web

Evolving Web